Fry dough products in bakery operations

Business Sectors (Suites): Craft Bakery
Developed by: Improve
Approved on: 30 Mar 2023


​This standard covers the skills and knowledge needed to fry dough products in craft, artisan or in-store bakery operations. Products which are fried typically include a range of fermented doughnuts and powder aerated doughnuts.

You need to show and understand how you prepare for frying which will include the checking of fryer settings, and the filling of frying oil/fat. You will need to demonstrate that you can fry products to the required standards using the correct procedures as described in a product specification. You need to know how heat is transferred to products and the changes which take place within products during frying and the importance of correct cooling. You also need to understand the changes which occur to frying media when heated and how these changes are controlled to ensure effective frying of products. Complying with and understanding health and safety, food safety, allergen and organisational requirements are essential features of this standard.

This standard is for you if you work in bakery operations, and is applied in the context of dough processing operations.

Performance criteria

You must be able to:

1. check and adjust fryer settings and ventilation in accordance with procedures
2. check frying oil levels and add oil or fat to the fryer in accordance with procedures
3. check the condition of doughs available for frying in accordance with specifications
4. minimise waste and deal with scrap material in accordance with procedures
5. comply with health and safety, food safety, allergen and organisational requirements throughout frying preparation operations
6. check the operating condition of the fryer and ventilation in accordance with procedures
7. load the fryer with dough products in accordance with procedures
8. check and monitor the frying of dough products to determine their progress against specification
9. unload fried products from the fryer when the product specification for frying has been met
10. position fried products for cooling, and take prompt action to isolate substandard products where the product specification is not met
11. shut down the fryer on completion of frying in accordance with procedures
12. comply with health and safety, food safety, allergen and organisational requirements throughout frying operations
13. carry out cleaning and maintenance activities in accordance with procedures

14. operate within the limits of your own authority and capabilities

Knowledge and Understanding

You need to know and understand:

1. the standards of health and safety and food safety you are required to comply with, why it is important that you do so, and what might happen if standards are not met
2. why it is important to follow work instructions and product specifications or recipes throughout processing
3. how to recognise and report dough or fried products that do not meet specification, and the procedure for rejecting and isolating failed products
4. how to prevent contamination and cross contamination during processing and what might happen if this is not done
5. what the lines and methods of effective communication during processing are and why it is important to use them correctly
6. the correct method for loading and unloading trays in racks
7. personal protective clothing/equipment and working practices for handling hot fried products safely
8. the importance of using fats or oils of the correct type for frying
9. the chemical structure of frying fats and oils
10. how the chemical structure of frying fats and oils are affected by heat over time
11. why it is necessary to replace fats or oils according to specifications
12. how heat is transferred from the frying media to a deep fry product
13. the meaning of the terms; slip point, smoke point and flash point for a fat or oil and their importance for the operating temperature of the fryer
14. the physical changes that take place within products during the frying process
15. how the absorption of fats into the surface of products during the frying process is important to the eating quality of the product and its resultant calorific value
16. what the effects of frying with too low a frying temperature
17. what the effects of frying with too high a frying temperature are
18. the importance of adequate ventilation during the frying products
19. the importance of correctly positioning and draining products

20. the aim and methods of effective cooling of products to maintain optimum condition of product


Scope Performance

Scope Knowledge





Links To Other NOS

External Links

Version Number


Indicative Review Date

30 Mar 2028





Originating Organisation


Original URN


Relevant Occupations

Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies, Food Production Operatives, Manufacturing Technologies, Process Operatives

SOC Code



Dough; Doughnut; Fry; Fried; Bakery; Baker;