Carry out complex fabrication and forming techniques for heavy goods and public service vehicles

Business Sectors (Suites): Coachbuilding
Developed by: IMI
Approved on: 30 Mar 2020


This standard is about complex fabrication and forming techniques used in the process of heavy goods and public service vehicle body building.  This includes complex calculations to determine materials required and optimum methods and techniques. 

Performance criteria

You must be able to:

P1. use the appropriate personal protective equipment throughout all fabrication and forming activities 
P2. support your fabrication and forming activities by reviewing: 

P2.1. vehicle technical data, drawing and diagrams 
P2.2. fabrication and forming procedures and techniques
P2.3. legal requirements 
P3. select, prepare and use all the tools and equipment required following manufacturers' instructions 
P4. carry out all fabrication and forming activities following: 

P4.1. manufacturers' data and instructions
P4.2. industry recognised methods 
P4.3. your workplace manuals and procedures 
P4.4. health, safety, environmental and legal requirements 
P5. work in a way which minimises the risk of: 

P5.1. damage to other vehicle systems, parts and components 
P5.2. contact with leakage and hazardous substances
P5.3. damage to your working environment
P5.4. injury to self and others 
P6. ensure fabricated or formed body panels and components conform to acceptable tolerances for the vehicle specification, quality standards and manufacturer's warranties 
P7. promptly record and report any additional faults you notice during the course of your work 
P8. use suitable testing methods to evaluate the performance of fabricated or formed body panels and components for compliance to vehicle specification and legal requirements 
P9. promptly report any non-compliance of fabricated or formed body panels and components to the relevant person(s) in accordance with workplace procedures 
P10. ensure your records are accurate, complete and passed to the relevant person(s) within the agreed timescale and in the format required
P11. complete all fabrication and forming activities within the agreed timescale 
P12. promptly report any anticipated delays in completion to the relevant person(s) 

Knowledge and Understanding

You need to know and understand:

*Legislative and organisational requirements and procedures *
K1. the legal requirements relating to the vehicle (including road safety requirements)
K2. the implications on an Operator’s Licence of not carrying out repairs and inspections correctly
K3. the legislation and workplace procedures relevant to: 

K3.1. health and safety
K3.2. the environment (including waste disposal)
K3.3. appropriate personal and vehicle protective equipment
K4. your workplace procedures for:

K4.1. recording fabrication and forming information
K4.2. the referral of problems
K4.3. reporting delays to the completion of work
K5. the work that needs to be done and the standard required 
K6. the importance of documenting fabrication and forming information
K7. the importance of working to agreed timescales and keeping others informed of progress
K8. the relationship between time, costs and productivity
K9. the importance of promptly reporting anticipated delays to the relevant person(s) 
K10. the hazards associated with working on or near high voltage electrical vehicle components

Use of technical information
K11. how to find, interpret and use sources of relevant information to establish the fabrication and forming method and work sequence for a range of vehicle body work activities
K12. the importance of using the correct sources of technical information

Tools and equipment
K13. how to select, prepare, check and use the correct tools and equipment used to cut materials prior to and during the complex fabrication and forming of vehicle body panels and components 
K14. how to select, prepare, check and use the correct tools and equipment used during the complex fabrication and forming of vehicle body panels and components 

Complex fabrication
K15. how to compare and select suitable *materials for the fabrication and forming of vehicle body panel and components
K16. how to use calculations to determine the blank size of complex fabricated or formed body panels and components, including bending, folding, rolling and cutting allowances
K17. the planning procedures for a range of complex fabricating and forming activities, considering: 

K17.1. materials used 
K17.2. materials and equipment availability, capacity and capability 
K17.3. forming sequence 
K17.4. standards and cost  
K18. the stages in producing fabricated or formed body panels and components for new, converted or modified vehicle bodywork  
K19. the critical stages for checking compliance in the cutting, fabrication and forming sequence 
K20. the effective and efficient techniques for the cutting, fabrication and forming of complex body panels and components
K21. how to select cutting, fabrication and forming methods for vehicle body panels and components and the factors to consider 
K22. how to use calculations when using a range of woodworking machines 
K23. the factors which determine the viability of using cutting, fabrication and forming aids 
K24. the factors related to the design of cutting, fabrication and forming aids
K25. the methods and tests used to check cut and fabricated or formed body panels and components for compliance including visual and tactile checks, measurement, operational and performance checks   


1. **Materials** include:

1.1. aluminium and its alloys 
1.2. carbon and stainless steels
1.3. GRP
1.4. timber and timber composites 
1.5. trimming materials

2. Tools and equipment include:

2.1. hand forming tools
2.2. advanced cutting equipment 
2.3. woodworking machines

3. Testing methods are:

3.1. sensory
3.2. functional
3.3. measurement
3.4. alignment

Scope Performance

Scope Knowledge





*This section contains examples and explanations of some of the terms used but does not form part of the standard.*
**Agreed timescales**
Examples include: manufacturer’s recommended work times, job times set by your company or a job time agreed with a specific customer.
Examples include: jigs, fixtures, formers, stops, fences, guides, templates, patterns
These are for: cutter size and pitch, feed rate, cutting speed, cutter pitch mark
**Cutting equipment**
Examples include: guillotines, saws, shears, drills, snips, nibblers, punches and thermal cutting equipment 
**Factors affecting cutting method selection**
Examples include: design specification and geometry of panel or component, materials and material form, equipment availability, capacity and capability, stress raising features, strength required, fabrication and forming sequence, tolerance, quantity, customer requirements, legislation, manufacturer's warranties, maintenance requirements, company quality standards and costs
**Factors determining acceptable tolerance**
Examples include. quality standards, manufacturer's warranties, equipment capabilities and capacities, material properties and form, critical and non-critical dimensions, function of body panel or component
**Factors influencing fabrication and forming sequence**
Examples include. material properties and form, curing time, equipment capability, capacity and availability, build sequence and designing against corrosion
**Hand forming tools**
Examples include: Mallets, hammers, dollies, spoons,
**Heavy goods and public service vehicles**
These are medium and large goods vehicles, buses and coaches of 3500kgs gross vehicle mass (GVM) and above.
**Sources of technical information**
Examples include detail drawings and diagrams, workshop manuals, manufacturer’s manuals and data, company procedures
**Woodworking machines**
Examples include: bandsaw, tablesaw, radial arm saw, pullover/crosscut saw, planer thicknesser and router

Links To Other NOS

External Links

Version Number


Indicative Review Date

31 Mar 2024





Originating Organisation


Original URN


Relevant Occupations

Bus and Coach Body Repairer, Coachbuilder

SOC Code



Complex; fabrication; forming; techniques; heavy goods vehicle; public service vehicle;